Stuttering is a disorder of communication characterized by disruptions in the flow of speech and language. The amount and type of disruptions vary among and within individuals. When people who stutter continue to stutter over time, thoughts and feelings are impacted. This is why stuttering is referred to as a syndrome; a problem involving motor behavior, how and what you think, and how you feel. Stuttering is caused by multiple factors including; neurological differences, environmental aggregates, and other developmental variables. Stuttering has genetic links. More than 60% of individuals who stutter are able to identify someone in their family who stutters or has stuttered in the past. Stuttering impacts each person and each family differently. Treatment for stuttering at an early age may reverse the disorder entirely. People of all ages are able to improve with specialized treatment.
Cluttering is similar to stuttering, but different. Cluttering is characterized by abnormally high rates of speech and irregular rhythm. Presented, are "typical types" of interruptions such as; word repetitions, phrase repetitions, interjections and hesitations. Cluttering is often labeled a language disorder because, those who do it may leave out parts of words or say only parts of sentences which may be disordered with regard to syntax, grammar and semantics. This often leaves speech unintelligible and confusing. Other learning problems often accompany cluttering. Stuttering and Cluttering may exist simultaneously.
... are as intelligent as other people.
It might sound bizarre, but a common mistake is to assume that people who stutter might suffer from a cognitive disorder. Always remember, stuttering is a communication disorder first and foremost.
...are as mentally stable as other people.
Similar to cognitive assumptions, people sometimes think that someone who stutters may be unstable. Misconceptions like that can contribute to feelings of insecurity and isolation over a lifetime.
...do not want to stutter.
An unfair assumption made at times is that stuttering is a choice, or something that is being done for attention. This couldn't be further from the truth.
...are of various cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
Similar to other disorders, there is no racial or ethnic group that statistically stutters more. This disorder can be found in people from all walks of life.
...were born with a predisposition to do so.
Neurological imaging shows differences in white and gray matter in the brain of people who stutter vs. people who do not. These differences may predispose stuttering in some people.